Filter by Responsibility

Principle 1: Perceivable

Information and user interface components must be presentable to users in ways they can perceive.

Guideline 1.1 Text Alternatives: Provide text alternatives for any non-text content so that it can be changed into other forms people need, such as large print, braille, speech, symbols or simpler language.

1.1.1 - Non-text Content

FED UX

All non-text content that is presented to the user has a text alternative that serves the equivalent purpose, except for the situations listed below. Level A

  • Controls, Input: If non-text content is a control or accepts user input, then it has a name that describes its purpose. (Refer to Guideline 4.1 for additional requirements for controls and content that accepts user input.)
  • Time-Based Media: If non-text content is time-based media, then text alternatives at least provide descriptive identification of the non-text content. (Refer to Guideline 1.2 for additional requirements for media.)
  • Test: If non-text content is a test or exercise that would be invalid if presented in text, then text alternatives at least provide descriptive identification of the non-text content.
  • Sensory: If non-text content is primarily intended to create a specific sensory experience, then text alternatives at least provide descriptive identification of the non-text content.
  • CAPTCHA: If the purpose of non-text content is to confirm that content is being accessed by a person rather than a computer, then text alternatives that identify and describe the purpose of the non-text content are provided, and alternative forms of CAPTCHA using output modes for different types of sensory perception are provided to accommodate different disabilities.
  • Decoration, Formatting, Invisible: If non-text content is pure decoration, is used only for visual formatting, or is not presented to users, then it is implemented in a way that it can be ignored by assistive technology.
  • All images, form image buttons, and image map hot spots have appropriate, equivalent alternative text.
  • Images that do not convey content, are decorative, or contain content that is already conveyed in text are given null alt text (alt="") or implemented as CSS backgrounds. All linked images have descriptive alternative text.
  • Equivalent alternatives to complex images are provided in context or on a separate (linked and/or referenced via longdesc) page.
  • Form buttons have a descriptive value.
  • Form inputs have associated text labels.
  • Embedded multimedia is identified via accessible text.
  • Frames are appropriately titled.
Guideline 1.2 Time-based Media: Provide alternatives for time-based media.

1.2.1 - Audio-only and Video-only (Prerecorded)

Content FED UX

For prerecorded audio-only and prerecorded video-only media, the following are true, except when the audio or video is a media alternative for text and is clearly labeled as such. Level A

  • Prerecorded Audio-only: An alternative for time-based media is provided that presents equivalent information for prerecorded audio-only content.
  • Prerecorded Video-only: Either an alternative for time-based media or an audio track is provided that presents equivalent information for prerecorded video-only content.
  • A descriptive text transcript (including all relevant visual and auditory clues and indicators) is provided for non-live, web-based audio (audio podcasts, MP3 files, etc.).
  • A text or audio description is provided for non-live, web-based video-only (e.g., video that has no audio track).

1.2.2 - Captions (Prerecorded)

Content FED

Captions are provided for all prerecorded audio content in synchronized media, except when the media is a media alternative for text and is clearly labeled as such. Level A

Synchronized captions are provided for non-live, web-based video (YouTube videos, etc.).

1.2.3 - Audio Description or Media Alternative (Prerecorded)

Content FED UX

An alternative for time-based media or audio description of the prerecorded video content is provided for synchronized media, except when the media is a media alternative for text and is clearly labeled as such. Level A

A descriptive text transcript OR audio description audio track is provided for non-live, web-based video.

1.2.4 - Captions (Live)

Content FED UX

Captions are provided for all live audio content in synchronized media. Level AA

Synchronized captions are provided for all live multimedia that contains audio (audio-only broadcasts, web casts, video conferences, Flash animations, etc.).

1.2.5 - Audio Description (Prerecorded)

Content FED UX

Audio description is provided for all prerecorded video content in synchronized media. Level AA

Audio descriptions are provided for all video content.
NOTE: Only required if the video conveys content visually that is not available in the default audio track.

1.2.6 - Sign Language (Prerecorded)

Content FED UX

Sign language interpretation is provided for all prerecorded audio content in synchronized media. Level AAA

A sign language video is provided for all media content that contains audio.

1.2.7 - Extended Audio Description (Prerecorded)

Content FED UX

Where pauses in foreground audio are insufficient to allow audio descriptions to convey the sense of the video, extended audio description is provided for all prerecorded video content in synchronized media. Level AAA

When an audio description track cannot be added to video due to audio timing (e.g., no pauses in the audio), an alternative version of the video with pauses that allow audio descriptions is provided.

1.2.8 - Media Alternative (Prerecorded)

Content FED UX

An alternative for time-based media is provided for all prerecorded synchronized media and for all prerecorded video-only media. Level AAA

A descriptive text transcript is provided for all pre-recorded media that has a video track.

1.2.9 - Audio-only (Live)

Content FED UX

An alternative for time-based media that presents equivalent information for live audio-only content is provided. Level AAA

A descriptive text transcript (e.g., the script of the live audio) is provided for all live content that has audio.

Guideline 1.3 Adaptable: Create content that can be presented in different ways (for example simpler layout) without losing information or structure.

1.3.1 - Info and Relationships

FED UX

Information, structure, and relationships conveyed through presentation can be programmatically determined or are available in text. Level A

  • Semantic markup is used to designate headings (<h1>), lists (<ul>, <ol>, and <dl>), emphasized or special text (<strong>, <code>, <abbr>, <blockquote>, for example), etc. Semantic markup is used appropriately.
  • Tables are used for tabular data. Where necessary, data cells are associated with their headers. Data table captions and summaries are used where appropriate.
  • Text labels are associated with form input elements. Related form elements are grouped with fieldset/legend.

1.3.2 - Meaningful Sequence

FED UX

When the sequence in which content is presented affects its meaning, a correct reading sequence can be programmatically determined. Level A

The reading and navigation order (determined by code order) is logical and intuitive.

1.3.3 - Sensory Characteristics

Design FED UX

Instructions provided for understanding and operating content do not rely solely on sensory characteristics of components such as shape, size, visual location, orientation, or sound. Level A

  • Instructions do not rely upon shape, size, or visual location (e.g., "Click the square icon to continue" or "Instructions are in the right-hand column").
  • Instructions do not rely upon sound (e.g., "A beeping sound indicates you may continue.").
Guideline 1.4 Distinguishable: Make it easier for users to see and hear content including separating foreground from background.

1.4.1 - Use of Color

Design

Color is not used as the only visual means of conveying information, indicating an action, prompting a response, or distinguishing a visual element. Level A

  • Color is not used as the sole method of conveying content or distinguishing visual elements.
  • Color alone is not used to distinguish links from surrounding text unless the luminance contrast between the link and the surrounding text is at least 3:1 and an additional differentiation (e.g., it becomes underlined) is provided when the link is hovered over or receives focus.

1.4.2 - Audio Control

FED UX

If any audio on a Web page plays automatically for more than 3 seconds, either a mechanism is available to pause or stop the audio, or a mechanism is available to control audio volume independently from the overall system volume level. Level A

A mechanism is provided to stop, pause, mute, or adjust volume for audio that automatically plays on a page for more than 3 seconds.

1.4.3 - Contrast (Minimum)

Design

The visual presentation of text and images of text has a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1, except for the following: Level AA

  • Large Text: Large-scale text and images of large-scale text have a contrast ratio of at least 3:1;
  • Incidental: Text or images of text that are part of an inactive user interface component, that are pure decoration, that are not visible to anyone, or that are part of a picture that contains significant other visual content, have no contrast requirement.
  • Logotypes: Text that is part of a logo or brand name has no minimum contrast requirement.
  • Text and images of text have a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1.
  • Large text (over 18 point or 14 point bold) has a contrast ratio of at least 3:1

1.4.4 - Resize text

FED

Except for captions and images of text, text can be resized without assistive technology up to 200 percent without loss of content or functionality. Level AA

The page is readable and functional when the text size is doubled.

1.4.5 - Images of Text

FED

If the technologies being used can achieve the visual presentation, text is used to convey information rather than images of text except for the following: Level AA

  • Customizable: The image of text can be visually customized to the user's requirements;
  • Essential: A particular presentation of text is essential to the information being conveyed.

Note: Logotypes (text that is part of a logo or brand name) are considered essential.

If the same visual presentation can be made using text alone, an image is not used to present that text.

1.4.6 - Contrast (Enhanced)

Design

The visual presentation of text and images of text has a contrast ratio of at least 7:1, except for the following: Level AAA

  • Large Text: Large-scale text and images of large-scale text have a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1;
  • Incidental: Text or images of text that are part of an inactive user interface component, that are pure decoration, that are not visible to anyone, or that are part of a picture that contains significant other visual content, have no contrast requirement.
  • Logotypes: Text that is part of a logo or brand name has no minimum contrast requirement.
  • Text and images of text have a contrast ratio of at least 7:1.
  • Large text (over 18 point or 14 point bold) has a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1

1.4.7 - Low or No Background Audio

FED UX

For prerecorded audio-only content that (1) contains primarily speech in the foreground, (2) is not an audio CAPTCHA or audio logo, and (3) is not vocalization intended to be primarily musical expression such as singing or rapping, at least one of the following is true: Level AAA

  • No Background: The audio does not contain background sounds.
  • Turn Off: The background sounds can be turned off.
  • 20 dB: The background sounds are at least 20 decibels lower than the foreground speech content, with the exception of occasional sounds that last for only one or two seconds.
    Note: Per the definition of "decibel," background sound that meets this requirement will be approximately four times quieter than the foreground speech content.

Audio of speech has no or very low background noise so the speech is easily distinguished.

1.4.8 - Visual Presentation

Design FED

For the visual presentation of blocks of text, a mechanism is available to achieve the following: Level AAA

  1. Foreground and background colors can be selected by the user.
  2. Width is no more than 80 characters or glyphs (40 if CJK).
  3. Text is not justified (aligned to both the left and the right margins).
  4. Line spacing (leading) is at least space-and-a-half within paragraphs, and paragraph spacing is at least 1.5 times larger than the line spacing.
  5. Text can be resized without assistive technology up to 200 percent in a way that does not require the user to scroll horizontally to read a line of text on a full-screen window.

Blocks of text over one sentence in length:

  • Are no more than 80 characters wide.
  • Are NOT fully justified (aligned to both the left and the right margins).
  • Have adequate line spacing (at least 1/2 the height of the text) and paragraph spacing (1.5 times line spacing).
  • Have a specified foreground and background color. These can be applied to specific elements or to the page as a whole using CSS (and thus inherited by all other elements).
  • Do NOT require horizontal scrolling when the text size is doubled.

1.4.9 - Images of Text (No Exception)

Design FED

Images of text are only used for pure decoration or where a particular presentation of text is essential to the information being conveyed. Level AAA

Note: Logotypes (text that is part of a logo or brand name) are considered essential.

Text is used within an image only for decoration (image does not convey content) OR when the information cannot be presented with text alone.

Principle 2: Operable

User interface components and navigation must be operable.

Guideline 2.1 Keyboard Accessible: Make all functionality available from a keyboard.

2.1.1 - Keyboard

FED

All functionality of the content is operable through a keyboard interface without requiring specific timings for individual keystrokes, except where the underlying function requires input that depends on the path of the user’s movement and not just the endpoints. Level A

  • All page functionality is available using the keyboard, unless the functionality cannot be accomplished in any known way using a keyboard (e.g., free hand drawing).
  • Page-specified shortcut keys and accesskeys (accesskey should typically be avoided) do not conflict with existing browser and screen reader shortcuts.

2.1.2 - No Keyboard Trap

FED

If keyboard focus can be moved to a component of the page using a keyboard interface, then focus can be moved away from that component using only a keyboard interface, and, if it requires more than unmodified arrow or tab keys or other standard exit methods, the user is advised of the method for moving focus away. Level A

Keyboard focus is never locked or trapped at one particular page element. The user can navigate to and from all navigable page elements using only a keyboard.

2.1.3 - Keyboard (No Exception)

FED

All functionality of the content is operable through a keyboard interface without requiring specific timings for individual keystrokes. Level AAA

All page functionality is available using the keyboard.

Guideline 2.2 Enough Time: Provide users enough time to read and use content.

2.2.1 - Timing Adjustable

FED UX

For each time limit that is set by the content, at least one of the following is true: Level A

  • Turn off: The user is allowed to turn off the time limit before encountering it; or
  • Adjust: The user is allowed to adjust the time limit before encountering it over a wide range that is at least ten times the length of the default setting; or
  • Extend: The user is warned before time expires and given at least 20 seconds to extend the time limit with a simple action (for example, “press the space bar”), and the user is allowed to extend the time limit at least ten times; or
  • Real-time Exception: The time limit is a required part of a real-time event (for example, an auction), and no alternative to the time limit is possible; or
  • Essential Exception: The time limit is essential and extending it would invalidate the activity; or
  • 20 Hour Exception: The time limit is longer than 20 hours.

If a page or application has a time limit, the user is given options to turn off, adjust, or extend that time limit. This is not a requirement for real-time events (e.g., an auction), where the time limit is absolutely required, or if the time limit is longer than 20 hours.

2.2.2 - Pause, Stop, Hide

FED UX

For moving, blinking, scrolling, or auto-updating information, all of the following are true: Level A

  • Moving, blinking, scrolling: For any moving, blinking or scrolling information that (1) starts automatically, (2) lasts more than five seconds, and (3) is presented in parallel with other content, there is a mechanism for the user to pause, stop, or hide it unless the movement, blinking, or scrolling is part of an activity where it is essential; and
  • Auto-updating: For any auto-updating information that (1) starts automatically and (2) is presented in parallel with other content, there is a mechanism for the user to pause, stop, or hide it or to control the frequency of the update unless the auto-updating is part of an activity where it is essential.
  • Automatically moving, blinking, or scrolling content that lasts longer than 5 seconds can be paused, stopped, or hidden by the user. Moving, blinking, or scrolling can be used to draw attention to or highlight content as long as it lasts less than 5 seconds.
  • Automatically updating content (e.g., automatically redirecting or refreshing a page, a news ticker, AJAX updated field, a notification alert, etc.) can be paused, stopped, or hidden by the user or the user can manually control the timing of the updates.

2.2.3 - No Timing

FED UX

Timing is not an essential part of the event or activity presented by the content, except for non-interactive synchronized media and real-time events. Level AAA

The content and functionality has no time limits or constraints.

2.2.4 - Interruptions

FED UX

Interruptions can be postponed or suppressed by the user, except interruptions involving an emergency. Level AAA

Interruptions (alerts, page updates, etc.) can be postponed or suppressed by the user.

2.2.5 - Re-authenticating

FED UX

When an authenticated session expires, the user can continue the activity without loss of data after re-authenticating. Level AAA

If an authentication session expires, the user can re-authenticate and continue the activity without losing any data from the current page.

Guideline 2.3 Seizures: Do not design content in a way that is known to cause seizures.

2.3.1 - Three Flashes or Below Threshold

Content

Web pages do not contain anything that flashes more than three times in any one second period, or the flash is below the general flash and red flash thresholds. Level A

No page content flashes more than 3 times per second unless that flashing content is sufficiently small and the flashes are of low contrast and do not contain too much red.

2.3.2 - Three Flashes

Content Design

Web pages do not contain anything that flashes more than three times in any one second period. Level AAA

No page content flashes more than 3 times per second.

Guideline 2.4 Navigable: Provide ways to help users navigate, find content, and determine where they are.

2.4.1 - Bypass Blocks

FED

A mechanism is available to bypass blocks of content that are repeated on multiple Web pages. Level A

  • A link is provided to skip navigation and other page elements that are repeated across web pages.
  • If a page has a proper heading structure, this may be considered a sufficient technique instead of a "Skip to main content" link. Note that navigating by headings is not yet supported in all browsers.
  • If a page uses frames and the frames are appropriately titled, this is a sufficient technique for bypassing individual frames.

2.4.2 - Page Titled

FED

Web pages have titles that describe topic or purpose. Level A

The web page has a descriptive and informative page title.

2.4.3 - Focus Order

FED

If a Web page can be navigated sequentially and the navigation sequences affect meaning or operation, focusable components receive focus in an order that preserves meaning and operability. Level A

The navigation order of links, form elements, etc. is logical and intuitive.

2.4.4 - Link Purpose (In Context)

FED UX

The purpose of each link can be determined from the link text alone or from the link text together with its programmatically determined link context, except where the purpose of the link would be ambiguous to users in general. Level A

  • The purpose of each link (or form image button or image map hotspot) can be determined from the link text alone, or from the link text and its context (e.g., surrounding paragraph, list item, table cell, or table headers).
  • Links (or form image buttons) with the same text that go to different locations are readily distinguishable.

2.4.5 - Multiple Ways

Dev FED UX

More than one way is available to locate a Web page within a set of Web pages except where the Web Page is the result of, or a step in, a process. Level AA

Multiple ways are available to find other web pages on the site - at least two of: a list of related pages, table of contents, site map, site search, or list of all available web pages.

2.4.6 - Headings and Labels

FED

Headings and labels describe topic or purpose. Level AA

Page headings and labels for form and interactive controls are informative. Avoid duplicating heading (e.g., "More Details") or label text (e.g., "First Name") unless the structure provides adequate differentiation between them.

2.4.7 - Focus Visible

Design FED UX

Any keyboard operable user interface has a mode of operation where the keyboard focus indicator is visible. Level AA

It is visually apparent which page element has the current keyboard focus (i.e., as you tab through the page, you can see where you are).

2.4.8 - Location

Design FED UX

Information about the user's location within a set of Web pages is available. Level AAA

If a web page is part of a sequence of pages or within a complex site structure, an indication of the current page location is provided, for example, through breadcrumbs or specifying the current step in a sequence (e.g., "Step 2 of 5 - Shipping Address").

2.4.9 - Link Purpose (Link Only)

Content FED UX

A mechanism is available to allow the purpose of each link to be identified from link text alone, except where the purpose of the link would be ambiguous to users in general. Level AAA

  • The purpose of each link (or form image button or image map hotspot) can be determined from the link text alone.
  • There are no links (or form image buttons) with the same text that go to different locations.

2.4.10 - Section Headings

Content FED UX

Section headings are used to organize the content. Level AAA

Note 1: "Heading" is used in its general sense and includes titles and other ways to add a heading to different types of content.

Note 2: This success criterion covers sections within writing, not user interface components. User Interface components are covered under Success Criterion 4.1.2.

Beyond providing an overall document structure, individual sections of content are designated using headings, where appropriate.

Principle 3: Understandable

Information and the operation of user interface must be understandable.

Guideline 3.1 Readable Make text content readable and understandable.

3.1.1 - Language of Page

FED

The default human language of each Web page can be programmatically determined. Level A

The language of the page is identified using the HTML lang attribute (<html lang="en">, for example).

3.1.2 - Language of Parts

FED

The human language of each passage or phrase in the content can be programmatically determined except for proper names, technical terms, words of indeterminate language, and words or phrases that have become part of the vernacular of the immediately surrounding text. Level AA

The language of page content that is in a different language is identified using the lang attribute (e.g., <blockquote lang="es">).

3.1.3 - Unusual Words

Content Design FED UX

A mechanism is available for identifying specific definitions of words or phrases used in an unusual or restricted way, including idioms and jargon. Level AAA

Words that may be ambiguous, unknown, or used in a very specific way are defined through adjacent text, a definition list, a glossary, or other suitable method.

3.1.4 - Abbreviations

Content Design FED UX

A mechanism for identifying the expanded form or meaning of abbreviations is available. Level AAA

Expansions for abbreviations are provided by expanding or explaining the definition the first time it is used, using the <abbr> element, or linking to a definition or glossary. NOTE: WCAG 2.0 gives no exception for regularly understood abbreviations (e.g., "HTML" on a web design site must always be expanded).

3.1.5 - Reading Level

Content Design FED UX

When text requires reading ability more advanced than the lower secondary education level after removal of proper names and titles, supplemental content, or a version that does not require reading ability more advanced than the lower secondary education level, is available. Level AAA

A more understandable alternative is provided for content that is more advanced than can be reasonably read by a person with roughly 9 years of primary education.

3.1.6 - Pronunciation

Content Design FED UX

A mechanism is available for identifying specific pronunciation of words where meaning of the words, in context, is ambiguous without knowing the pronunciation. Level AAA

If the pronunciation of a word is vital to understanding that word, its pronunciation is provided immediately following the word or via a link or glossary.

Guideline 3.2 Predictable: Make Web pages appear and operate in predictable ways.

3.2.1 - On Focus

FED UX

When any component receives focus, it does not initiate a change of context. Level A

When a page element receives focus, it does not result in a substantial change to the page, the spawning of a pop-up window, an additional change of keyboard focus, or any other change that could confuse or disorient the user.

3.2.2 - On Input

FED UX

Changing the setting of any user interface component does not automatically cause a change of context unless the user has been advised of the behavior before using the component. Level A

When a user inputs information or interacts with a control, it does not result in a substantial change to the page, the spawning of a pop-up window, an additional change of keyboard focus, or any other change that could confuse or disorient the user unless the user is informed of the change ahead of time.

3.2.3 - Consistent Navigation

Design FED UX

Navigational mechanisms that are repeated on multiple Web pages within a set of Web pages occur in the same relative order each time they are repeated, unless a change is initiated by the user. Level AA

Navigation links that are repeated on web pages do not change order when navigating through the site.

3.2.4 - Consistent Identification

Design FED UX

Components that have the same functionality within a set of Web pages are identified consistently. Level AA

Elements that have the same functionality across multiple web pages are consistently identified. For example, a search box at the top of the site should always be labeled the same way.

3.2.5 - Change on Request

Design FED UX

Changes of context are initiated only by user request or a mechanism is available to turn off such changes. Level AAA

Substantial changes to the page, the spawning of pop-up windows, uncontrolled changes of keyboard focus, or any other change that could confuse or disorient the user must be initiated by the user. Alternatively, the user is provided an option to disable such changes.

Guideline 3.3 Input Assistance: Help users avoid and correct mistakes.

3.3.1 - Error Identification

Design FED UX

If an input error is automatically detected, the item that is in error is identified and the error is described to the user in text. Level A

  • Required form elements or form elements that require a specific format, value, or length provide this information within the element's label.
  • If utilized, form validation errors are presented in an efficient, intuitive, and accessible manner. The error is clearly identified, quick access to the problematic element is provided, and user is allowed to easily fix the error and resubmit the form.

3.3.2 - Labels or Instructions

Design FED UX

Labels or instructions are provided when content requires user input. Level A

Sufficient labels, cues, and instructions for required interactive elements are provided via instructions, examples, properly positioned form labels, and/or fieldsets/legends.

3.3.3 - Error Suggestion

Design FED UX

If an input error is automatically detected and suggestions for correction are known, then the suggestions are provided to the user, unless it would jeopardize the security or purpose of the content. Level AA

If an input error is detected (via client-side or server-side validation), provide suggestions for fixing the input in a timely and accessible manner.

3.3.4 - Error Prevention (Legal, Financial, Data)

Design FED UX

For Web pages that cause legal commitments or financial transactions for the user to occur, that modify or delete user-controllable data in data storage systems, or that submit user test responses, at least one of the following is true: Level AA

  1. Reversible: Submissions are reversible.
  2. Checked: Data entered by the user is checked for input errors and the user is provided an opportunity to correct them.
  3. Confirmed: A mechanism is available for reviewing, confirming, and correcting information before finalizing the submission.

If the user can change or delete legal, financial, or test data, the changes/deletions can be reversed, verified, or confirmed.

3.3.5 - Help

Design FED UX

Context-sensitive help is available. Level AAA

Provide instructions and cues in context to help in form completion and submission.

3.3.6 - Error Prevention (All)

Design FED UX

For Web pages that require the user to submit information, at least one of the following is true: Level AAA

  1. Reversible: Submissions are reversible.
  2. Checked: Data entered by the user is checked for input errors and the user is provided an opportunity to correct them.
  3. Confirmed: A mechanism is available for reviewing, confirming, and correcting information before finalizing the submission.

If the user can submit information, the submission is reversible, verified, or confirmed.

Principle 4: Robust

Content must be robust enough that it can be interpreted reliably by a wide variety of user agents, including assistive technologies.

Guideline 4.1 Compatible: Maximize compatibility with current and future user agents, including assistive technologies.

4.1.1 - Parsing

Dev FED

In content implemented using markup languages, elements have complete start and end tags, elements are nested according to their specifications, elements do not contain duplicate attributes, and any IDs are unique, except where the specifications allow these features. Level A

Significant HTML/XHTML validation/parsing errors are avoided.

4.1.2 - Name, Role, Value

Dev FED

For all user interface components (including but not limited to: form elements, links and components generated by scripts), the name and role can be programmatically determined; states, properties, and values that can be set by the user can be programmatically set; and notification of changes to these items is available to user agents, including assistive technologies. Level A

Markup is used in a way that facilitates accessibility. This includes following the HTML/XHTML specifications and using forms, form labels, frame titles, etc. appropriately.